目前分類:der Kunstgeschichte (192)

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Bouvard and Pécuchet is the narrative of two loony Parisian bachelors who, at a chance meeting, discover between themselves a profound sympathy, and also that they are both copy clerks. They share a distaste for city life and particularly for their fate of sitting behind desks all day. When Bouvard inherits a small fortune the two buy a farm in Normandy, to which they retire, expecting there to meet head-on the reality that was denied them in the half-life of their Parisian offices. They begin with the notion that they will farm their farm, at which they fail miserably. From agriculture they move to a more specialized field: arboriculture. Failing that they decide upon garden architecture. To prepare themselves for each of their new professions, they consult various manuals and treatises, in which they are extremely perplexed to find contradictions and misinformation of all kinds. The advice they find in them is either confusing or utterly inapplicable; theory and practice never coincide. But undaunted by their successive failures, they move on inexorably to the next activity, only to find that it too is incommensurate with the texts which purport to represent it. They try chemistry, physiology, anatomy, geology, archeology...the list goes on. When they finally succumb to the fact that the knowledge they've relied upon is a mass of contradictions, utterly haphazard and quite disjunct from the reality they’d sought to confront, they revert to their initial task of copying. Here is one of Flaubert’s scenarios for the end of novel:

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The beginning of modernism in painting is usually located in Manet’s work of the early 1860s, in which painting’s relationship to its art-historical precedents was made shamelessly obvious. Titian’s Venus of Urbino is meant to be as recognizable a vehicle for the picture of a modern courtesan in Manet’s Olympia as is the unmodeled pink paint that composes her body. Just one hundred years after Manet thus rendered painting's relationship to its sources self-consciously problematic, Rauschenberg made a series of pictures using images of Velázquez’s Rokeby Venus and Ruben’s Venus at Her Toilet. But Rauschenberg’s references to these old-master paintings are effected entirely differently from Manet’s; while Manet duplicates the pose, composition and certain details of the original in a painted transformation, Rauschenberg simply silkscreens a photographic reproduction of the original onto a surface that might also contain such images as trucks and helicopters. And if trucks and helicopters cannot have found their way onto the surface of Olympia, it is obviously not only because such products of the modern age had not yet been invented; it is because of the structural coherence that made an image-bearing surface legible as a picture at the threshold of modernism, as opposed to the radically different pictorial logic that obtains at the beginning of postmodernism. Just what it is that constitutes the particular logic of a Manet painting is discussed by Foucault in an essay about Flaubert’s Temptation of St. Anthony:

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We have here yet another example of Kramer's moralizing cultural conservatism disguised as progressive modernism. But we also have a very interesting estimation of the discursive practice of the museum in the period of modernism and of its present transformation. Kramer’s analysis fails, however, to take into account the extent to which the museum ‘s claims to represent art coherently have already been opened by the practice of contemporary—postmodernist—art.

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Douglas Crimp

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台北故宮日前舉辦「公主的雅集:蒙元皇室與書畫鑑藏文化特展」,來介紹元朝重要的皇家收藏者─大長公主祥哥剌吉的收藏。一般人對祥哥剌吉毫不認識,但研究中國美術史的人可是耳熟能詳。因為他收藏了許多重要的書畫作品,前承宋金,下開明代,在認識作品的流傳史當中,至為重要。

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不知何故,最近居然多了一些藝術史入門的文章。我以為這門學科已經退流行了,但顯然臉書所培養起來的同溫層,似乎讓一些人覺得經營這樣的內容會有市場。

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一般人若提到對日本藝術的第一印象,十有八九大概都會想到「浮世繪」。確實浮世繪可謂最具日本特色的藝術表現形式,但之所以浮世繪如此名聞遐邇,卻與十九世紀歐洲藝術圈掀起的「日本主義」熱潮有關。

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Ko, Yu Seop 高裕燮

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自清末以來到民國年間的中國藝術史,最大的議題即是「西化」。在「列強入侵」,國勢衰疲的狀態下,就連枝微末節的藝術表現,也被革新派稱之為是讓中國萎靡不振的幫兇。比如康有為在自己的藏畫目錄序言,開頭就直言「中國近世之畫衰敗極矣」,對傳統繪畫發展的狀態極盡鄙薄。對他們而言,要解決傳統繪畫的弊病,除了汲取西法外,他們覺得另一種解決之道,是追摹更為久遠的「古」,也就是宋畫。但實際上,無論是取法西方或是回復宋法,關鍵的概念就在於「寫實」。對他們而言,只有回歸寫實,才有辦法與西方的藝術抗衡。

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朱由校與朱由檢兄弟,使明代步入無法挽回的滅亡。在民亂蠭起,李自成已經攻入北京城下時,朱由檢選擇在紫禁城的後山上吊自殺,留下一個巨大的爛攤子。但朝中仍有大臣不甘就這樣陷入終結,他們迅速南下到應天府,推舉宗室朱由崧為皇帝,開啟後世所謂「南明」的短命政權。

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明代在繪畫史中,是一個畫論輩出的時期。當西方的藝術史學科進入中國前,文人品評繪畫的高低,並援引一些概念來佐證,在明代大開其風。究其原因,可以歸結到明代仕紳階級開始強調品味高低,透過擺設、器用等方式強調與「俗人」的不同,其中當然包含對前代畫家的評斷。所謂元四家的地位與吹捧,基本上可以由這時間開始。中國畫論中著名的南北宗分法,也是晚明董其昌的發明。

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蒙古人先後滅掉金、西夏、南宋,使版圖又回到屬於單一政權的局面。但這個版圖遠大於今日的中國疆域,因為蒙古此時同時控制了中亞、西亞、北印度、俄羅斯等地。雖然蒙古人的入侵使得原本燦爛的伊斯蘭文明遭到嚴重的破壞,卻也開啟一個前所未有的局面,歐亞大陸在相對單純的政權底下,東西雙方來往甚至比今日更為方便,促成東西文化再次頻繁的交流。

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除了唐與宋,我還想談遼、金、西夏。

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唐代雖然是中國政府心中期盼的「強國夢」投射,但中國美術史研究真正的豐碑,其實在宋代。前不久杭州舉辦了盛大的宋代藝術研討會,邀請國際知名的中國藝術史學者與會。但跟國際學界相比,中國對宋代藝術的研究其實相當落後。早在台北的故宮博物院對外開放後,宋代繪畫就成為研究重心,日本、美國的學界都對台北故宮的宋畫進行討論,並與歐美日本各地收藏的古畫進行比較。今天台北故宮有三幅珍貴的宋畫國寶:范寬的《谿山行旅圖》、郭熙的《早春圖》、李唐的《萬壑松風圖》,幾乎是我們對宋代山水畫風格的判斷基準。當然,這也是數十年來學術界研究累積的而造就的成果。

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北魏後分裂為東魏與西魏,東魏為高歡把持,西魏則為宇文泰把持,後東魏由高洋篡位,更為北齊,西魏則「禪讓」給宇文覺,改元北周。此時期的美術史研究,仍以佛教藝術為主,北齊、北周兩地均有相當精美豐富的石刻造像、造像碑,此外,近年也發掘到很多墓葬,當中有所謂的「粟特人」墓地。粟特人活動於今新疆至中亞一帶,是若干部落民族的總稱,在史書上稱為「九姓胡」,顧名思義,粟特人通常是特定的九「姓」,比如史、安、康、曹等,實際上這是部落的名稱,所謂的「姓」是指他們原來所居的部落,即史國、安國、康國等等。粟特人以買賣貨物謀生,類似仲介的角色。他們帶來西方的商品、文化,甚至是宗教信仰,促成這段時期頻繁的文化交流。

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而南越王墓,除了等級極高、出土豐富,使我們增加對西漢物質文化的理解外,有一個中國一直避而不談的事情,就是南越王,指的是「南越國的國王」。這個「國」雖然號稱藩屬,但與漢朝分封諸親王的「封國」不一樣,是真正獨立的國家。所以,雖然現在的地圖,都把漢代的疆域畫到嶺南和越南北部,但實際上這個區域嚴格來說,並不是漢朝的領土。所以南越王墓到底算不算「中國美術」的一部份,是有討論空間的。

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